国际无网点银行实践及其对中国的启示

The practice of international non bank and Its Enlightenment to China

摘要:(摘要内容经过系统自动伪原创处理以避免复制,下载原文正常,内容请直接查看目录。)

上世纪70年月至90年月,世界上很多成长中国度都重要依附国有银行、贸易银行及其分支机构向人们供给各类金融办事。但跟着经济社会的赓续成长和金熔化水平的逐步进步,人们对金融办事的需求年夜幅增长,经由过程银行及其分支机构愈来愈不克不及知足人们对金融办事的需求,特别是偏僻山区和乡村等经济较为落伍的贫苦地域,存在年夜量金融办事的空白乡镇。为了知足人们的需求和填补这些地域历久存在的金融空白,当局开端出台相干政策支撑银行等金融机构以分歧于传统金融办事的方法向这些地域的人们供给根本的金融办事,无网点银行恰是在如许的配景下出生。本文第一章起首解释了这一研讨的实际和实际意义并对国际外无网点银行的重要研讨结果停止了简述。第二章起首对无网点银行的根本概念、特点、组成、运作机制、营业功效和办事形式等方面停止了较为具体的引见,并对其内涵涵义停止了延长:一是为穷汉供给金融办事,改良其生涯的社会许诺;二是完成本身可连续成长的财政许诺。无网点银行所寻求的是探访两者之间的均衡——不只可以或许让客户取得好处,还能取得必定的市场报答,即客户的好处和金融办事供给商的好处经由精心设计而获得均衡,这是其寻求的终究愿景。其次,从客户需求、署理收集、办事形式和风险治理四个方面评论辩论了国际无网点银行理论的经历。客户需求方面:‘无网点银行设计的每种产物,供给的每项办事,都要依据客户的需求,做到有的放矢;署理收集方面:经由过程构建署理收集,则供给了以低本钱向年夜量贫苦人群供给金融办事的机遇;办事形式方面:因为每一个国度的详细现实其实不雷同,因此在选择无网点银行办事形式时应当从本国的经济社会配景等实际情形动身;风险治理:作为一种金融办事立异,无网点银行在展现处理贫苦生齿金融办事可得性、进步金融笼罩面伟大潜力的同时,也随同着很多新的风险,假如没有配套的风险治理监管办法,则能够伤害客户的好处,乃至影响全部金融体系的平安。第三章对较早展开无网点银行理论的巴西、印度、菲律宾和肯尼亚等国的胜利形式停止了引见,偏重点对其各类分歧形式间的异同停止了剖析。四国营业形式的配合的地方起首是都依附于信息和通信技巧,不管是营业的解决,照样生意业务信息的处置,都离不开信息和通信技巧的支撑;其次,不管是巴西、肯尼亚,照样印度、菲律宾,其无网点银行理论能得以胜利的症结之一便在于国际散布普遍的署理商。这些署理商根本完成了对国际绝年夜部门规模的笼罩,让人们特别是偏僻地域的贫苦群体都能享用到根本的金融办事。四国营业形式的差别起首在于巴西的署理银行轨制和印度的EKO较少依附挪动德律风技巧,其营业展开重要运用付出卡和读卡器等技巧,客户营业的解决、生意业务信息反应等更多的依附于银行焦点信息体系。另外,巴西和印度的无网点银行客户所能享用到的金融办事重要在署理处解决。署理是金融办事供给商和客户的独一沟通中介。同此比拟,菲律宾G-Cash和肯尼亚M-Pesa重要依附于挪动德律风技巧,触及现金的营业才重要在署理处解决;其次,巴西和印度接收的客户资金重要寄存在银行动客户供给的账户内,受银行体系监管,而G-Cash和M-Pesa接收的客户资金则重要寄存在挪动供给商为客户供给的账户内,其实不受银行体系监管;再次,固然署理商可以署理根本金融办事,但每一个国度所许可的署理规模其实不雷同。分歧于肯尼亚和菲律宾仅能署理普通的账户营业、付出营业和现金存取、转账汇款等营业,巴西和印度的万能型署理可以供给多种办事;最初,剖析了列国形式在构建署理收集并停止治理方面的差别。第四章从以下几个方面剖析了扶植我国无网点银行系统的根本准绳。第一,让穷汉也能享用到根本的金融办事,扩展金融笼罩面也一向是展开无网点银行理论的初志。因此我国无网点银行理论应以处理贫苦生齿金融办事可得性,进步金融笼罩率作为其主旨;第二,无网点银行差别于传统银行办事的主要特点之一便在于其从空间和时光上完成了办事规模的拓展和延长,使得银行等机构经由过程署理在乡村等偏僻地域供给金融办事成为实际,而这离不开古代信息和通信技巧的支撑,是以我国无网点银行系统扶植将以古代信息和通信技巧作为营业展开的基本;第三,除技巧支撑外,无网点银行得以展开的条件就是其能正当的存在,因此当局政策支撑这是其营业展开的条件;第四,作为一种金融办事立异,无网点银行焦点就在于署理轨制的设计,署理商作为衔接金融办事供给商和客户的桥梁,代表供给商向客户供给金融办事,在无网点银行营业展开中饰演着“中央人”的脚色。是以我国无网点银行系统扶植的准绳之一就是以署理商为供给金融办事的中介;第五,利润是无网点银行可连续成长的根本源泉。乡村等遥远地域历久存在金融办事空白或缺乏,重要缘由在于银行等机构开设分支或营业网点的投入高、收益低,没法完成财政上的可连续。无网点银行关于填补这些地域金融办事缺乏、进步金融笼罩率虽具有伟大潜力,但其成长也离不开利润的内涵支持。是以不管是银行、挪动运营商照样其他无网点银行介入者,都将对利润的寻求作为其运营的重要目的。第五章就署理人、署理收集治理者(ANM)和金融办事供给商等无网点银行重要介入者,评论辩论了其在无网点银行系统中各自饰演的脚色,和所触及的权、责、利。关于署理人,重要从其根本资历、权力及责任、考察与起落和其好处等方面停止了评论辩论;关于ANM,重点评论辩论了其所饰演的脚色、面对的挑衅和应享用的好处;作为无网点银行办事的主导者,对金融办事供给商的评论辩论重要触及了所供给的产物及办事的设计,署理人尺度制订、署理收集构建、署理收集形式选择、无网点银行营业订价、供给链支出分派和客户掩护等方面。第六章重点评论辩论了我国无网点银行的营业形式选择。重要包含以下五个方面:第一,从政策轨制、技巧、教导、其他介入者等方面临我国展开无网点银行理论的计谋情况停止了剖析;第二,就前文所引见的巴西、印度、菲律宾和肯尼亚等国的形式,联合我国的详细现实,剖析比拟了分歧办事形式的好坏,最初提出了以挪动运营商为主导的办事形式,并便可能涌现的成绩停止了剖析并给出了响应建议;第三,依据地舆地位、资金实力、荣誉和接收新颖事物才能等尺度,提出了以乡村等地域普遍存在的日用品小市肆和挪动运营商网点等贸易实体作为署理商的建议;第四,依据人力基本、技巧基本、雄厚的资金实力,治理署理人平常运营特别是其活动性的经历等尺度,提出了以挪动运营商为署理收集治理者的建议,并针对署理商活动性治理,提出了挪动运营商与乡村信誉社、村镇银行等地处乡村地域的专业金融机构协作的建议。第七章从客户、署理商和金融办事供给商三个方面,分离剖析了其各自所带来的风险及响应的风险治理建议。来自客户的风险重要是客户所面对的被讹诈、选择不用要的产物和不克不及有用维权而遭遇丧失的风险;来自署理商的风险重要有现金风险、财政风险、操风格险、运营风险、讹诈风险和洗钱等其他风险;来自金融办事供给商的风险重要包含对无网点银行营业不克不及停止有用治理和掌握的风险和由挪动运营商刊行虚拟泉币所带来的风险。针对上述风险,本文分离客户、金融办事供给商、监管者三个方面给出了其各自的风险治理思绪。关于客户,当局和供给商应当赞助客户在根本立场、金融常识和金融技巧等方面赓续改良和进步;而供给商则应在署理政策和法式、对署理收集的按期审核、风险分管和处分机制、外部掌握及审计和监管申报、应急筹划、保险等方面停止自我监管;而当局的风险治理思绪重要包含事前允许和过后监视两个方面。事前允许方面:作为独一可以或许制订司法尺度的机构,当局有需要也有义务事前对一些根本原则做出划定,如市场准入、署理人资历、署理营业规模和供给商能否是可以将营业外包、客户掩护和AML/CFT等。过后监管方面:当局还可以应用监管申报、数据库和现场检讨等过后监视的手腕和对象来应对无网点银行能够的风险。本文的立异点在于不只从实际到理论对无网点银行停止具体引见和剖析,并提出了扶植我国无网点银行的根本准绳、主体战略,并联合我国现实从技巧程度、轨制情况、金融教导、其他介入者等方面临我国计谋情况停止了剖析,并对分歧办事形式停止了剖析比拟,并联合最新国际理论,提出了分歧于以往研讨的计划选择——以挪动运营商为主导的办事形式,并就详细实行时能够涌现的成绩停止了评论辩论剖析并给出了响应建议,和选择相符前提的乡村等地域普遍存在的日用品小市肆和挪动运营商网点作为署理商,参考自创肯尼亚的分层治理形式并针对我国现实情形停止了响应修改。最初针对无网点银行风险的特别性,从客户才能进步、金融办事供给商自我监管与当局监管三个方面提出了我国无网点银行风险治理更加周全的思绪。

Abstract:

The last century 70 years to 90 years, many of the world's growth Chinese of state-owned banks, commercial banks rely on its branches to supply all kinds of financial services. But along with the economic society develops ceaselessly and the molten metal level of the gradual progress, growing financial services needs of large amplitude, through the process of bank and its branches grew more cannot satisfy the people demand for financial services, especially in remote mountainous areas and rural economy is relatively backward in the poor area, there are a large number of financial services blank township. In order to satisfy people's needs and to fill these regional long-standing financial gap, the authorities began issued relevant policy support for banks and other financial institutions to differences in traditional financial service method to the local people to provide basic financial work, branchless banking is precisely in such as Xu's entourage was born. The first chapter of this paper first explains the research theoretical and practical significance and important research on international banking outlets outside the stop briefly. In the second chapter, first of all the bank branches of the basic concepts, characteristics, composition, operation mechanism, business efficiency and work stopped relatively detailed introduction, and its connotation meaning stop extending: one is for the poor supply of financial services, improved the career of social promise; the second is financial commitment itself can develop continuously. No bank branches are seeking is visiting the balance between the two -- not only may let the customer benefits, but also gets a certain market returns, namely the benefits of the benefits to the customers and financial service provider through the careful design and obtaining the balanced, which is to seek after all wish scene. Secondly, from the customer needs, collecting agent, work form and risk management four comments debate the international experience of the theory of bank outlets. Customer demand: "each product of branchless banking design, each service supply, according to customer needs, targeted; Acting collection: the process of constructing the acting collection, provided with low cost to a large number of poor people do things the supply of financial opportunities; work: because with the reality of each country is not the same, so the choice of branchless banking should work start from its own economic and social background of the actual situation; risk management: as a kind of financial service innovation, no network bank in the poor population display financial services availability and coverage of great potential financial progress at the same time, also with a lot of new risks, if there is no way to risk management supervision and supporting, can damage the benefits of the customer, and the impact of the overall financial system safety. Brazil, India, Philippines and Kenya's victory form the third chapter branchless banking theory to start earlier were introduced, focusing on the similarities and differences between the various partial form between the analysis. Four business form with the local chapeau is dependent on information and communication skills, whether business solution, still business information disposal, are inseparable from the support of information and communication skills; secondly, whether it is Brazil, Kenya, still India, the Philippines, theory of bank outlets can be one of the crux of the victory is international spread general agent. These agent basically on the vast size of the eve of the sector shrouded, let people especially in remote areas of the underprivileged can enjoy the basic financial services. Four business form difference chapeau is Brazil's rail system in the acting bank and India's Eko less attachment to mobile telephone skills, the business to begin by pay card and card reading skills such as, business customers solve, business information reaction more attachment to bank focal point information system. In addition, Brazil and India branchless banking customers can enjoy the financial services in the Acting Department to solve important. The acting is a financial service provider and customer communication intermediary only. Herewith analogy, the Philippines G-Cash and Kenya M-PESA important attached to mobile telephone skills, touch the cash business is important in acting to solve; secondly, Brazil and India customers receive significant funding to send existing bank accounts of customer supply. Under the supervision of the banking system, and customer funds received G-Cash M-PESA is an important deposit in mobile vendors provide the customer's account, in fact, is not subject to the supervision of the banking system; again, although agent can acting fundamental financial services, but every country admission scale acting in fact is not the same. Differences in Kenya and the Philippines only acting ordinary account business, business sales and cash deposit, remittance transfers to pay, Brazil and India's universal acting can offer a variety of services; finally, it analyzes the nations in building a collection of acting and stop the difference of governance. The fourth chapter analyzes the basic principles of fostering our branchless banking system from the following aspects. First, let qionghan can enjoy to the basic financial services, extended financial enveloped surface has been no theory of bank outlets. So our branchless banking theory should be to deal with the poor population the availability of financial services, financial progress coverage as its main theme; second, one of the main characteristics of branchless banking is different from traditional banking services is from the space and time to complete the work to expand the scale and extension, making banks and other institutions through the process of acting in rural remote areas the supply of financial service to become a reality, but it cannot do without the support of the ancient information and communication skills, with no support of China's banking system outlets to ancient information and communication skills as the basic business expansion; third, in addition to technical support, branchless banking to be carried out due to the conditions that the existence of the authorities policy support which is the expansion of the operating conditions; fourth, as a kind of financial service innovation, is to design the acting system of branchless banking department focus. Dealers, as the link bridge of financial service provider and customer, on behalf of the supplier to provide financial service, in the branchless banking business to begin plays the role of "man in the middle". In one of the network bank system to foster criterion is agent services in the supply of financial intermediary; fifth, profit is branchless banking to the continuous growth of the fundamental source. Rural and remote areas of the long-term existence financial services blank or lack of, the important reason is that banks and other institutions to set up branches or outlets of high input, low income, can not complete financial continuous. No network bank on the regional financial services, the lack of these fill rate has great progress over the financial potential, but the connotation of its growth also cannot do without the support of profit. Is whether banks, mobile operators or other networks without bank intervention, will seek to profit as its important objective. Chapter five is acting, acting collection management (anm) and financial service suppliers, no bank branches important intervention, review the debate its role each plays in the branchless banking system, and involves the rights, responsibilities and interests. About acting, important from the basic qualifications, power and responsibility, investigation and landing gear and its benefits, such as stop the comment debate; a anm, review focuses on the debate the which plays its role, challenges and should enjoy the benefits; as a non bank outlets business leader, the financial service supplier review debate important touch the supply of product and service design, agent scale formulation, acting to collect and build, choose the collection in the form of acting, no outlets for the pricing of bank business, supply chain income distribution and customer cover etc.. The sixth chapter focuses on the choice of bank outlets comment on our non business form. Include the following five aspects: first, from the policy system, skills, teaching and other participants, facing China's development strategy of branchless banking theory is analyzed; second, Brazil, India, Philippines and Kenya and other countries in the form of the above introduction, combined with the reality of our country. Analysis and comparison of the different forms of service quality, initially proposed to mobile operators as the leading service form, and may have problems were analyzed and suggestions are given to the third response; based on the geographical position, financial strength, honor and receive new things to scale, put forward to the rural areas generally there are daily necessities small stores and mobile network operators such as trading entity agent; fourth, according to the basic skills, basic human, financial strength, management agent usually Operation, especially the activities of experience scale proposed to mobile operators acting collection management advice, and according to the acting business activity management, put forward the suggestions for mobile operators and rural credit cooperatives, rural banks and other rural areas of financial institutions, professional collaboration. Chapter seven from three aspects of client, agent and financial service provider, isolation and analysis of the their respective risk and response risk management advice. From the risk of the customer is important clients are facing is blackmail, choose not to be the product of and means less than useful in adults and encounter the risk of loss; from the agent risk important have cash risk, financial risk, operation style insurance, operational risk, fraud risk and money laundering risks; from the risk of financial service provider include the branchless banking business means too late to stop the useful governance and mastery of risk and brought by mobile operators publish virtual currency risk. In view of these risks, the separation of financial services customers, suppliers, regulators are three aspects of their respective risk management thoughts. A customer, authorities and suppliers should be helping customers in root position, financial knowledge and financial skills aspect is improved ceaselessly and progress; and the supplier should be in acting policy and French, of acting collected regular audit, risk in charge and punishment mechanism, the external master and audit and regulatory reporting, emergency planning, insurance and other self regulatory and risk management thoughts of authorities. Important contains prior permission and after watching two aspects. Prior permission, as the only may formulate the scales of justice agencies and authorities to also have an obligation prior to some of the fundamental principles of make a provision, such as market access, agent qualifications, acting business scale and the supplier can be can be business outsourcing, customers cover and the AML / CFT and. After the regulatory authorities can also: wrist and object after the application of regulatory reporting, review and on-site monitoring database to deal with the risk of branchless banking can. The innovation point of this article is not only from theory to practice to introduce and analyze the specific bank outlets to stop, and put forward the construction of China's banking networks without the basic principles of subject, strategy, and combined with the reality of our country from the skill level, system environment, financial and other aspects such as teaching intervention strategy on China to stop analysis of differences and work are analyzed and compared, and combined with the latest international theory, put forward different from the previous research work in the form of plan choice - mobile operators led, and detailed implementation can have problems were analyzed and corresponding comment on the proposal, and generally consistent premise the rural region selection of daily necessities small stores and mobile business outlets as the agent, a reference from the hierarchical form of governance in Kenya and according to our country's actual situation to stop ringing Should be amended. The first special of branchless banking risk, our branchless banking risk management more comprehensive thoughts from three aspects of customer, financial service providers to improve self regulatory and regulatory authorities.

目录:

摘要4-8
Abstract8-11
1. 绪论15-24
    1.1 研究背景和意义15-16
    1.2 国内外研究综述16-21
        1.2.1 国外研究现状16-19
        1.2.2 国内研究现状19-21
    1.3 研究思路和内容21-23
        1.3.1 研究思路21
        1.3.2 主要内容21-23
    1.4 主要创新点23-24
2. 国际无网点银行简介及其主要经验24-32
    2.1 无网点银行简介24-28
        2.1.1 无网点银行基本概念和特征24-25
        2.1.2 无网点银行基本构成和运作机制25-26
        2.1.3 无网点银行业务功能26-27
        2.1.4 无网点银行服务模式27-28
    2.2 国际无网点银行实践的经验28-32
        2.2.1 充分了解客户需求,根据客户需求设计服务28-29
        2.2.2 构建零售代理商业网络,并进行科学管理29-30
        2.2.3 结合本国具体实际,选择适宜的服务模式30-31
        2.2.4 制定配套规章制度,以防范和管理相应风险31-32
3. 国际无网点银行主要业务模式32-39
    3.1 巴西代理银行32-33
    3.2 肯尼亚M-PESA33-34
    3.3 印度EKO34-35
    3.4 菲律宾G-CASH35
    3.5 各种业务模式小结35-39
4. 建设我国无网点银行体系的基本原则39-44
    4.1 以解决贫困人口金融服务可得性,提高金融覆盖率为宗旨39-40
    4.2 以现代信息和通讯技术为业务发展的基础40-41
    4.3 以政府政策支持为业务开展的前提41
    4.4 以代理商为提供金融服务的中介41-42
    4.5 以追求利润为经营的主要目标42-44
5. 建设我国无网点银行的主体策略44-57
    5.1 代理人44-47
        5.1.1 代理人资格44-45
        5.1.2 代理人权利和义务45
        5.1.3 代理人考核与升降45-47
        5.1.4 代理人利益47
    5.2 代理网络管理者ANM47-50
        5.2.1 ANM角色47-49
        5.2.2 ANM报酬49-50
        5.2.3 ANM挑战50
    5.3 金融服务供应商50-57
        5.3.1 金融服务设计51
        5.3.2 代理人标准制定51-53
        5.3.3 代理网络构建53-54
        5.3.4 代理网络模式选择54-55
        5.3.5 无网点银行业务定价55
        5.3.6 供应链收入分配55-56
        5.3.7 客户保护56-57
6. 我国无网点银行业务模式选择57-65
    6.1 我国无网点银行战略环境分析57-59
    6.2 我国无网点银行服务模式选择59-62
    6.3 我国无网点银行代理商选择62-63
    6.4 我国无网点银行ANM选择63-65
7. 我国无网点银行的风险管理65-74
    7.1 无网点银行风险65-67
        7.1.1 来自客户的风险65
        7.1.2 来自代理商的风险65-66
        7.1.3 来自金融服务供应商的风险66-67
    7.2 我国无网点银行风险管理思路67-74
        7.2.1 客户能力的提高67-68
        7.2.2 供应商自我监管68-71
        7.2.3 政府监督和管理71-74
参考文献74-77
后记77-78
致谢78-79
在读期间科研成果目录79