清代重庆地区农田水利与主要粮食作物种植研究

Study on farmland irrigation and water conservancy and main grain crops in Chongqing region in Qing Dynasty

摘要:(摘要内容经过系统自动伪原创处理以避免复制,下载原文正常,内容请直接查看目录。)

区域汗青研讨是汗青研讨的重点课题之一。必定区域社会经济成长深入地影响着区域政治、文明、风气习气等。最近几年来,区域汗青研讨与实际的关系获得社会的看重,重庆作为一个新型成长、年青地城市具有非常丰硕的汗青资本及其研讨价值。本文以清朝处所志材料和农史典籍记录为根据,以清朝重庆地域为配景,从农田水利和美洲出口的甘薯,玉米两种农作物的栽种为角度,对汗青时代重庆地域的成长停止了论述,同时剖析了水利扶植和农业之间的关系,和重要食粮作物对清朝重庆带来的影响。全文分引言、注释两部门在引言中,笔者简单论述选题的实际根据与实际意义,简略回想学术史,界定研讨规模、相干概念和研讨内容。注释部门阐述了清朝农田水利、重要食粮作物两部门内容第一,清朝重庆的农田水利。清学者刘献廷有云“水利兴,尔后世界可平,内乱可息,而教化可兴矣”,水利在农业临盆中的位置不言而喻。本章以农田水利由浇灌方法和重要打水对象为重要内容,根据处所县志中的史料,整顿阐述该地域的农业临盆情形。重庆地域地形奇特,多山多丘陵。农田以山田,梯田为主,经由过程山泉溪流,筑堰造塘为农田停止浇灌。而地势较高的农田又借用龙骨车和筒车浇灌,其应用又是农业技巧一年夜提高的表现,经由过程研讨这两种打水对象在清朝重庆地域的应用情形,关于懂得和研讨重庆地域的农业经济是非常有赞助的。第二,重要食粮作物。本章内容引见了传统水稻在清朝重庆地域的栽种情形,概述了红薯,玉米两种美洲作物各条道路的传入过程,又具体论述了重要农作物在重庆的栽种情形,提醒了它们对重庆农人生涯的主要性。这三种重要农作物的传入和推行对重庆生齿,耕空中积和经济的影响是多方面的,一是使耕空中积扩展,深山老林、丘陵山地获得了开辟。二是在我本地居平易近的饮食生涯中施展了主要感化。三是对生齿增加的影响,本文从考核清朝重庆地域生齿增加情形动身,联合美洲食粮作物本身特色剖析与生齿之间的接洽。四是对生态情况的影响,援用方志中年夜量材料以解释其时因为垦种玉米,红薯等雨季作物惹起的情况好转招致农业临盆率下降的情形。总之,明清时代美洲食粮作物玉米、甘薯的传入、流传对重庆发生了伟大影响。

Abstract:

Regional history study is one of the important topics in history research. Will the regional social and economic growth deeply influenced the regional politics, civilization, habit etc.. In recent years, the relationship between regional history study and the actual social value, Chongqing as a new growth, young city has a very rich history of capital and its research value. The paper to the Qing Dynasty place history materials and agricultural history books record, according to the impact and important food crop of Qing Dynasty in Chongqing in Qing Dynasty in Chongqing region as the background, from irrigation and water conservancy, and American exports of sweet potato, corn two crops planting angle to discuss the historical epoch, Chongqing Regional growth, at the same time, analyzes the relationship between water conservancy construction and agriculture. The full text is divided into introduction, note two departments in the introduction, according to the actual and practical significance the author briefly introduces the topic, briefly recall the academic history, definition of research scale, related concepts and research content. The notes section describes the Qing Dynasty important food crops, irrigation and water conservancy departments two content first, irrigation and water conservancy of Chongqing in the Qing dynasty. Qing Dynasty scholar Liu Xianting have cloud water conservancy Xing. Thereafter the world flat, civil strife can interest. And enlightenment can be Xing Yi ", the position of the water conservancy in agriculture is self-evident. This chapter to irrigation and water conservancy by watering method and important kick objects is an important part of, according to the local county historical to rectify this agricultural production situation in the region. Chongqing terrain is unusual, hills and mountains. The farmland to Yamada, terraces, springs and streams through the process of building a weir made into farmland, pond for irrigation. And the higher terrain of farmland use keel cars and the tube waterwheel irrigation and its application is a big agricultural techniques improve the performance, through the discussion on the two draw object application in Qing Dynasty in Chongqing region, on the understanding and research of Chongqing regional agricultural economy is very help. Second important food crops. This chapter introduces the traditional rice planted in the Qing Dynasty in Chongqing region, an overview of the sweet potato, corn American crops streets and incoming process, and discusses the specific crop planted in Chongqing reminded them of Chongqing farmers career. Important crops in these three kinds of incoming and implementation of Chongqing population, farming the air volume and economic effects of is in many aspects, one of which is the plow air expanding integrable, deep forests, hilly areas obtained the development. Two in my local residents diet play important role in career. And influence of population increase, the assessment of the Qing Dynasty in Chongqing area population increase start, between the United States of America the food crops itself characteristic analysis and population approached. Four is the impact on the ecological environment and invoke local middle-aged night weight material to explain the meantime because cultivated species of corn, sweet potato and so on rainy season crops caused by the situation improves incur agriculture declines in the rate. In short, the Ming and Qing Dynasties America food crops of corn and sweet potato was introduced and spread happens to Chongqing great influence.

目录:

中文摘要5-7
ABSTRACT7-8
1 绪论11-16
    1.1 选题的依据和意义11
    1.2 国内外研究现状11-15
        1.2.1 国内研究状况11-14
        1.2.2 国外研究状况14-15
    1.3 研究方法与创新15-16
2 清代重庆的农田水利16-31
    2.1 清代重庆自然概况与行政区划16-17
        2.1.1 自然概况16-17
        2.2.2 清代重庆地区行政区划17
    2.2 农田的灌溉方式17-23
        2.2.1 河流山泉水灌溉17-18
        2.2.2 塘堰灌溉18-23
    2.3 主要的汲水工具23-31
        2.3.1 简易的提水工具——桔槔24-25
        2.3.2 龙骨车25-27
        2.3.3 筒车27-31
3 主要粮食作物的种植31-43
    3.1 清代重庆农业概况31-32
    3.2 水稻32-33
    3.3 玉米33-36
    3.4 甘薯36-40
    3.5 美洲作物所带来的影响40-43
4 结论43-45
参考文献45-48
附录48-49
致谢49