明代河南土地研究

Henan land research in the Ming Dynasty

摘要:(摘要内容经过系统自动伪原创处理以避免复制,下载原文正常,内容请直接查看目录。)

重要经由过程对明朝河南各个时代地盘面积与明中前期的丈地均粮、折亩研讨,商量明朝河南在各个时代地盘面积的更改、明朝中前期丈地均粮、折亩在明朝河南的实态。在传统社会里,地盘有着极端主要的地位,人类社会进入工业社会之前,最重要的部分就是农业。而农业可以称作是地盘开辟与应用的家当。河南地舆地位处于九州当中,在中国进入文明阶段以来,相当一段时光里是生齿最为浓密、地盘开辟应用最为蓬勃的地域之一。唐宋以来,河南在全国的经济位置逐步阑珊,政治位置和文明再不复之前的壮大影响力。元末明初河南阅历了残暴的战斗摧残,年夜量的地盘旷废待垦。经由了生齿的天然增加,特殊是明当局有组织的强迫移平易近,使得地广人稀的局势获得了较年夜的转变。很多易垦地域地盘开辟应用敏捷。虽然政书和方志显示的地盘数据增加不是特殊显著,不外河南耕空中积涌现了很年夜的增加,从洪武二十四年(1391)的近44万顷增加到嘉靖三十一年(1552)的73万顷,到万历十年(1582)的近100万顷,增加的幅度异常年夜。不外,河南各个府州增加幅度其实不是同步的,重要是开封府、南阳府、汝宁府地盘的增加速度惊人。明初以降,河南的地盘整体应用状况表示为从“荒地”(非耕地)到“熟地”(耕地)的进程。另外,关于河南明初144万顷地盘数据的靠得住性成绩上,很有能够是定位毛病而招致的成果。在现存的史料文献中,没有显著证据证实明初南方地域停止了年夜范围的履亩清丈后而编制的鱼鳞图册,终明之世也一直没有中心法则划定每一个州县必需攒造鱼鳞图册和按期的更造轨制。明中期以来,跟着地盘开垦殆尽,分歧亩制却承当雷同的税率的抵触逐步激化,有志州县官开端了丈地均粮活动。从嘉靖初年开端,到万积年间,河南停止了年夜范围的丈地均粮活动。随同着丈地均粮活动,还停止了年夜范围的折亩活动,折亩的重要目标是为了坚持原额下的税则调剂,虽然折亩碰到了必定的阻力,但普通庶民连续的均税均役的激烈请求常常年夜于阻力,这是折亩州县赓续增长最重要的缘由,万历中前期河南停止折亩的州县跨越一半以上,而且展示出了庞杂性与多样性。

Abstract:

By process of Ming Dynasty in Henan all times site area and in the early Ming Zhang to all grain, folding Mu research, Ming discuss in Henan in land area in each age change, Ming Dynasty in the early stage of the feet are grain, folding acres in the actual state of the Ming Dynasty in Henan. In traditional society, the site has a very important position, before the human society entered the industrial society, is the most important part of agriculture. While the agricultural land development and application can be called home. Since Henan geographical position in Kyushu. In China entered the stage of civilization, for quite a long time is population of the most dense, land to develop one of the most vigorous used regional. Since the Tang and Song Dynasties, Henan in the country's economic position gradually decline, before the political position and civilization will never return the growth influence. Yuanmomingchu Henan has experienced a brutal battle by a large amount of land to be reclaimed empty. Through the natural increase of the population, especially organized the Ming authorities forced immigrants, is a big change in the situation in the sparsely populated. A lot of cultivated land to develop regional application of agile and easy. Although display Zhengshu and local site data increase is not distinct, nothing more than Henan farming the air product of the emergence of a very big increase, from the Hong Wu twenty-four years (1391) nearly 44 million hectares increased to Jiajing thirty years (1552) of 73 million hectares, in Wanli 10 years (1582) of nearly 100 million hectares, the increase amplitude anomaly of the eve of the. However, the Henan government, the increase is not synchronous, important is Kaifeng house, Nanyang house, Ru Ning Fu site increased at an alarming rate. In the early Ming Dynasty, the application status of the whole territory of Henan expressed as from "wasteland" (non arable land) to the process of cultivated land (cultivated land). Also on Henan Ming 144 million hectares of land data reliable results, very can be fault location and bring about results. In the existing historical literature, there is no significant evidence that in the early Ming Dynasty Southern regional large-scale shoe acres of measurement and the preparation of yulintuce, the end of the world has not central dogma to delineate each county must save made yulintuce and scheduled to make rail system. Mid Ming Dynasty since, along with the land reclamation and exhausted, differences Mu system has to bear the same tax conflict intensifies gradually, Chi magistrate began the Zhangs are grain activities. From the beginning of Jiajing Dynasty, to accumulate million years, Henan conducted a large-scale activities are grain zhang. Along with Zhang were grain activities, also stopped large-scale converted MU activity and fold acres of an important goal is to adhere to the original amount of tariff adjustment, although converted Mu met a certain amount of resistance, but ordinary plebeian continuous were tax service fierce request very often a large resistance. This is converted Mu county increases ceaselessly the most important reason, Wanli in the prophase of Henan stop fold acres of prefectures and counties across more than half, and demonstrate the complexity and diversity.

目录:

摘要4-5
ABSTRACT5-7
目录8-10
第一章 导论10-30
    一、 选题缘起10-11
    二、 学术史评述11-18
    三、 研究思路与视角18-19
    四、 相关概念界定19-22
    五、 资料依据及方法22-27
    六、 论文创新之处27-30
第二章 明代河南的地理环境与政区30-36
    一、 河南的自然地理环境30-32
    二、 明代河南的政区沿革32-36
第三章 明代河南的土地开发及数量考辨36-54
    一、 明初河南的残破及其开发36-40
    二、 明初河南土地数字再审视40-48
    三、 明代中后期河南土地数字考辨48-54
第四章 明代河南的土地登记机制——兼论鱼鳞图册在河南的实施与嘉靖、万历清丈54-84
    一、 洪武时期河南的土地丈量及鱼鳞图册54-60
    二、 明代中后期河南土地清丈研究60-72
    三、 明代河南折亩研究72-84
第五章 耕地数据重建的可能性-以内乡县为例的个案研究84-96
    一、 内乡县历史概况84-85
    二、 两篇微观史料及其解读85-92
        (一) 《万历九年丈田亩清浮粮碑》85-88
        (二) 《内乡县田粮述》88-92
    三、 《万历九年丈田清浮粮碑》与《内乡县田粮述》的解读92-96
        (一) 《万历九年丈田清浮粮碑》的解读92-93
        (二) 《内乡县田粮述》的解读93-96
余论96-100
附表100-108
参考文献108-120
后记120-122