量子信息隐藏协议研究

Research on quantum information hiding protocols

摘要:(摘要内容经过系统自动伪原创处理以避免复制,下载原文正常,内容请直接查看目录。)

跟着量子信息技巧的迅猛成长,量子保密通讯实际与完成技巧的卓著研讨结果给现有信息迷信的研讨带来了反动性的冲击,并惹起了人们极年夜的存眷。愈来愈多的科研人员积极投入到这个新兴的科研范畴。特别值得一提的是,信息隐蔽也被引入到了这个备受注视的研讨范畴。量子信息隐蔽以量子态作为传输信息的载体,应用量子信息和量子盘算等量子力学手腕来完成量子或经典机密新闻的隐蔽/提取和隐藏传输,其隐藏性和平安性可以由量子力学根本道理获得包管。量子信息隐蔽是信息隐蔽与量子信息迷信相联合的一个极新的研讨偏向,也是信息平安技巧研讨中的新亮点,具有非常主要的研讨价值和辽阔的运用远景。本文自创经典信息隐蔽实际和思惟办法的精华,联合具有没有前提平安性的量子保密通讯实际与技巧,基于量子力学的根本道理和特征,应用量子信息迷信手腕,研讨量子信息隐蔽协定的症结基本实际及量子隐藏信道协定和量子隐写协定的剖析与设计。量子隐藏信道协定和量子隐写协定是量子信息隐蔽协定的两个主要分支,前者在其他的量子保密通讯协定的通讯信道中树立一条隐藏信道来传递机密新闻;后者将机密新闻嵌入到其他看起来不相干的量子载体中,使之仅可以或许被预期的吸收方读取。本文的详细研讨任务以下:(1)研讨了量子信息隐蔽症结基本实际方面的一些内容,并获得了一些研讨结果。起首,提出了量子隐藏信道的概念,将隐藏信道正式引入了量子信息范畴;并自创经典信息依照用处分类的思惟办法,将量子信息隐蔽协定停止了分类。其次,在文中各个量子信息隐蔽协定的机能剖析部门研讨了信息隐蔽的机能评价目标在量子信息范畴的新内在。特殊的,为了精确反应出量子资本的消费和嵌入容量之间的关系,提出了一个定量评价嵌入容量的目标——隐藏通讯效力。再次,研讨了对量子信息隐蔽有着基本性支持感化的量子直接通讯协定,基于Grover搜刮算法,设计了一个肯定性平安量子通讯(DSQC)协定和一个量子平安直接通讯(QSDC)协定。(2)剖析了可以在QSDC信道中树立隐藏信道的缘由,并设计了个基于随意率性QSDC信道的量子隐藏信道协定。起首,经由过程剖析酉操作在QSDC协定中的感化和特征,指出了可以在QSDC信道中树立隐藏信道的缘由。由于酉操作在QSDC协定中不只具有编码信息的功效,并且具有自力于量子态的普适性和保密性等特征,所以可以再次应用QSDC信道中应用过的酉操作树立一条只要通讯两边晓得的隐藏信道来传输机密新闻。其次,设计了一个基于随意率性QSDC协定的量子隐藏信道协定。该协定和给定的QSDC协定具有雷同的容量,并且具有较好的普适性和较低的盘算庞杂度。最初,联合量子隐形传态协定,提出了一个传递量子信息的量子隐藏信道协定。(3)借助于量子态纠缠交流的公式,深刻研讨了基于量子态纠缠交流的量子隐藏信道协定。一方面,基于狭义Bell态纠缠交流的输出态和输入态知足的关系式,设计了一个简略的机密新闻编码规矩,并提出了一个不用耗任何帮助粒子的量子隐藏信道协定。另外一方面,指出了Qu等人提出的基于χ-型态纠缠交流的量子隐藏信道协定存在的缺点及其缘由,并给出了改良计划。由于随意率性一个χ-型态与16个分歧的χ-型态纠缠交流后能够的输入态有8组而不是16组分歧的成果,所以难以一次编码一个4比特的机密新闻。为懂得决这一缺点,依据χ-型态纠缠交流的输出态和输入态知足的关系式提出了一个改良的量子隐藏信道协定。与之前的基于量子态纠缠交流的隐藏信道协定比拟,该类协定不只盘算庞杂度更低,并且不会消费任何帮助量子态。(4)为了进一步进步隐藏通讯效力,提出了一类基于多个二粒子正交量子态直积态的高效量子隐藏信道协定。起首基于两个Bell态的直积态,提出了一个具有较低盘算庞杂度的机密新闻编码规矩,并设计了一个具有普适性的高效量子隐藏信道协定。为了进一步进步嵌入容量和隐藏通讯效力,将该协定停止了推行,提出了一类基于多个二粒子正交量子态直积态的高效量子隐藏信道协定。机能剖析注解,该类协定除不用耗任何帮助量子态以外,还具有较好的可扩大性和较低的盘算庞杂度。当QSDC信道初始态序列中量子态个数不是太多时,该类协定具有较年夜的嵌入容量和较高的隐藏通讯效力。(5)指出了一个基于GHZ4态的量子隐写协定(AMH协定)的编码规矩存在的缺点,剖析了其缘由,并给出了改良计划。AMH协定中给出的8组酉操作只能把GHZ4态酿成6个而不是8个分歧的量子态,因此应用个中的任何一组酉操作都没法准确编码一个3比特的机密新闻。为懂得决这一成绩,本文给出了可以将GHZ4态酿成8个分歧量子态的8组酉操作,胜利完成每组酉操作编码一个3比特机密新闻的目标。

Abstract:

Along with the rapid growth of quantum information technology, quantum communication and practical skills to complete the outstanding research results bring revolutionary impact to the existing research of information science, and has aroused great concern. More and more researchers devote to this emerging research field. It is particularly worth mentioning is that information hiding is introduced into the research field closely watched. Quantum information hiding based on quantum states as information transmission carrier, the application of quantum information and quantum computation and quantum mechanical wrist to complete the quantum or classical secret news hidden / extraction and transfer hidden. The hidden and security can guarantee is obtained by the basic principles of quantum mechanics. Quantum information hiding is hidden information and quantum information science combined with a brand-new research bias and information security technology research in a new bright spot, has very important research value and broad application prospect. This paper created the essence of classical information hiding theory and way of thinking, combined with there is no prerequisite for peace of quantum secure communication theory and technique, the crux of the agreement based on the basic principle and characteristics of quantum mechanics, quantum information science wrist, the study of quantum information hiding based the actual and quantum hidden channel agreement and quantum implicit writing analysis and design of the agreement. Quantum hidden channel agreement and quantum hidden written agreement is quantum information hiding agreement of the two main branches, the former in other quantum secure communication protocol of communication channel set up a hidden channel to transmit news confidential; the secret information is embedded into the other doesn't look of quantum carrier in the only can perhaps be expected absorption read. In this paper, the specific research work is as follows: (1) discuss some content of quantum information hiding the actual basic crux, and has obtained some research results. First of all, put forward the concept of quantum channel hidden, hidden channel formally introduced the category of quantum information; and from the classical information classification according to use the way of thinking, the quantum information hiding a classification agreement. Secondly, in the various quantum information hidden agreement the performance analysis of a new internal departments on the functional evaluation of target information hidden in quantum information field. In particular, in order to accurately reflect the relationship between consumption and capital quantum embedding capacity, proposed a quantitative evaluation of the embedding capacity -- hidden communication effect. Again, the research of quantum information hidden has a basic support effect in quantum direct communication protocol, based on Grover search algorithm design a positive safe quantum communication (dsqc) agreement and a quantum safety direct communication (QSDC) agreement. (2) analysis can establish hidden channel of reason in the QSDC channel, and design based on the random whims QSDC channel quantum hidden channel agreement. First of all, through the analysis of process characteristics and effect of unitary operations in the QSDC agreements, pointed out the reason hidden channel can be set in the QSDC channel. Because of the unitary operations in the QSDC protocol not only has the efficacy of information coding, and has independent on the quantum state of general fitness and security feature, so it can be used again QSDC channel used by unitary operations set up a as long as communication on both sides know the hidden channel to transmit secret news. Secondly, the design of a hidden channel agreement QSDC agreement based on quantum random whims. This Agreement and the QSDC agreement has given the same capacity, and has better adaptability and lower calculation complexity. First, the joint quantum teleportation protocol, proposed a transfer of quantum information quantum hidden channel agreement. (3) with the help of quantum entanglement exchange formula, deep quantum entangled quantum state exchange agreement based on the hidden channel. On the one hand, based on relations between narrow Bell state entanglement AC output state and the input state contented design a simple secret news code rules, and put forward a not consume any help particle quantum hidden channel agreement. On the other hand, pointing out that the Qu et al proposed based on X - type entanglement exchange quantum hidden channel agreement exists shortcomings and the reasons, and gives the improvement plan. Due to the random whims and a Chi style and 16 different X - type entanglement exchange can input state has 8 groups and not 16 groups of different results, so it is difficult to code a 4 bit secret news. To understand this shortcoming, according to X - type entanglement AC output state and the input state contented proposed a modified quantum hidden channel agreement. And before the hidden channel protocol based on entanglement quantum communication compared to the agreement not only the computation complexity is lower, and does not consume any help of quantum states. (4) in order to further improve the hidden communication effect, put forward a kind of multi particle quantum state based on two orthogonal product state efficient quantum hidden channel protocol. The first product state two based on Bell state, has proposed a low calculating complex encoding rules of confidential news, and designed a high quantum universal hidden channel agreement. In order to further improve the embedding capacity and hidden communication effect, will stop the implementation of the agreement, proposed a class of more than two particle quantum state based on orthogonal product state efficient quantum hidden channel protocol. The performance analysis notes, the agreement without any help of quantum state consumption, but also has good scalability and lower calculation complexity. When the QSDC channel is the initial state of quantum state in the sequence number is not too much, the agreement has larger embedding capacity and high hiding communication effect. (5) pointed out that a quantum state based on hidden GHZ4 written agreement (AMH agreement) the encoding rules shortcomings, analyzes its reason, and gives the improvement plan. Given the AMH agreement in the 8 groups of unitary operations only to GHZ4 state into 6 rather than 8 different quantum states, any of a group of confidential news so the application of unitary operations are not exactly a 3 bit encoding. In order to solve this problem, this paper gives the state can be GHZ4 into 8 groups of unitary operations in 8 different quantum states, the successful completion of each unitary operations encoding a 3 bit secret news target.

目录:

摘要4-8
ABSTRACT8-12
第一章 绪论17-29
    1.1 研究背景及研究意义17-20
    1.2 国内外研究现状20-26
    1.3 本文的主要工作26-27
    1.4 本文的章节安排27-29
第二章 基于任意QSDC信道的量子隐蔽信道协议29-48
    2.1 引言29
    2.2 相关基础知识29-36
        2.2.1 量子比特30-31
        2.2.2 量子逻辑门31-33
        2.2.3 纠缠态33-34
        2.2.4 广义Bell态和广义Pauli操作34-35
        2.2.5 量子测量35
        2.2.6 量子力学的几个基本原理35-36
    2.3 可以在QSDC信道中建立隐蔽信道的原因36-40
    2.4 一个基于任意QSDC信道的量子隐蔽信道协议40-43
        2.4.1 隐蔽信道中的秘密消息编码规则40-41
        2.4.2 发送经典消息的量子隐蔽信道协议41-43
    2.5 性能分析43-45
        2.5.1 隐蔽性分析43-44
        2.5.2 容量分析44-45
        2.5.3 安全性45
    2.6 两个扩展协议45-47
        2.6.1 一个扩展的秘密消息编码规则45-46
        2.6.2 一个发送量子秘密消息的量子隐蔽信道协议46-47
    2.7 小结47-48
第三章 基于量子态纠缠交换的量子隐蔽信道协议48-71
    3.1 引言48
    3.2 基于广义Bell态纠缠交换的量子隐蔽信道协议48-63
        3.2.1 广义Bell态的纠缠交换49-50
        3.2.2 基于广义Bell态纠缠交换的秘密消息编码规则50-55
        3.2.3 基于广义Bell态纠缠交换的量子隐蔽信道协议55-58
        3.2.4 性能分析58-63
        3.2.5 基于广义Bell态纠缠交换的量子隐蔽信道协议的应用63
        3.2.6 两个扩展协议63
    3.3 改进的基于χ-型态纠缠交换的量子隐蔽信道协议63-70
        3.3.1 χ-型纠缠态的物理特性64-66
        3.3.2 改进的基于χ-型态纠缠交换的秘密消息编码规则66-67
        3.3.3 改进的基于χ-型态纠缠交换的量子隐蔽信道协议67-70
    3.4 小结70-71
第四章 基于量子态直积态的高效量子隐蔽信道协议71-92
    4.1 引言71
    4.2 基于Bell态直积态的量子隐蔽信道71-83
        4.2.1 基于Bell态直积态和酉操作的秘密消息编码规则72-75
        4.2.2 基于Bell态直积态的高效量子隐蔽信道协议75-78
        4.2.3 性能分析78-82
        4.2.4 两个扩展协议82-83
    4.3 基于多个二粒子正交量子态直积的量子隐蔽信道协议83-91
        4.3.1 基于二粒子正交纠缠纯态的QSDC协议84
        4.3.2 秘密消息编码规则84-86
        4.3.3 基于多个二粒子正交量子态直积态的量子隐蔽信道协议86-90
        4.3.4 嵌入容量分析90-91
    4.4 小结91-92
第五章 一个基于GHZ_4态的量子隐写协议的分析与改进92-98
    5.1 引言92
    5.2 AMH协议概述92-94
    5.3 AMH协议的分析94-95
    5.4 一种基于GHZ_4态的改进量子隐写协议95-96
    5.5 小结96-98
第六章 两个基于Grover搜索算法的量子直接通信协议98-106
    6.1 引言98-99
    6.2 Grover搜索算法及其特性99-100
    6.3 基于Grover搜索算法的QDC协议100-103
        6.3.1 基于Grover搜索算法的DSQC协议100-101
        6.3.2 基于Grover搜索算法的QSDC协议101-103
    6.4 安全性分析103-105
        6.4.1 截获—重发攻击103-104
        6.4.2 纠缠—测量攻击104-105
    6.5 小结105-106
第七章 总结与展望106-110
    7.1 本文工作总结106-108
    7.2 未来研究工作展望108-110
参考文献110-124
致谢124-125
攻读学位期间学术论文目录125-126
攻读学位期间参与科研项目目录126